Breaking Science News|Sci-News

Welcome to the “Breaking Science News” update from Hawaii Science Digest. Views expressed in this science and technology news summary are those of the reporters and correspondents.  Content provided by “Sci-News.”

Accessed on 30 April 2019, 2305 UTC.

Source:  http://www.sci-news.com

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ASTRONOMY

Astronomers Find Ancient Nova Remnant in Messier 22

Using the MUSE, an integral-field spectrograph on ESO’s Very Large Telescope, Göttgens et al discovered the remains of a nova near the center of the globular cluster Messier 22. Image credit: NASA / ESA / Hubble / F. Göttgens, Institute for Astrophysics, University of Göttingen.A nova is a cataclysmic event on the surface of a white dwarf star in a binary stellar system that increases the overall brightness by several orders of magnitude. A team of European astronomers has discovered the remains of a nova in a globular cluster called Messier 22. Using the MUSE, an integral-field spectrograph on ESO’s Very Large Telescope, Göttgens et al discovered the remains of a nova…

SPACE EXPLORATION

Pluto’s Atmosphere Predicted to Collapse by 2030

This high-resolution image of Pluto was taken by New Horizons on July 14. Pluto’s surface sports a remarkable range of subtle colors, enhanced in this view to a rainbow of pale blues, yellows, oranges, and deep reds. Many landforms have their own distinct colors, telling a complex geological and climatological story that scientists have only just begun to decode. Image credit: NASA / Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory / Southwest Research Institute.The tenuous nitrogen atmosphere of the dwarf planet Pluto is predicted to ultimately collapse and freeze over. This high-resolution image of Pluto was taken by New Horizons on July 14, 2015. Pluto’s surface sports a remarkable range of subtle colors, enhanced in this view to a rainbow of pale blues, yellows, oranges, and deep reds. Many landforms have their own distinct colors, telling a complex…

ARCHAEOLOGY

Scientists Reconstruct Face of Neolithic Dog

A 3D model created from a dog skull discovered at Cuween Hill chambered cairn, Orkney, Scotland. Image credit: Historic Environment Scotland.The face of a 4,000-year-old dog has been brought back to life by a team of researchers and forensic artists. A 3D model created from a dog skull discovered at Cuween Hill chambered cairn, Orkney, Scotland. Image credit: Historic Environment Scotland. In 1901, archaeologists found the 4,000-year-old remains of at least 24 dogs in Cuween Hill chambered cairn on Orkney, off the northern coast of Scotland. Now,…

PALEONTOLOGY

Meet Callichimaera perplexa, Strangest Crab that Has Ever Lived

Callichimaera perplexa. Image credit: Elissa Martin, Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History.An international team of paleontologists has found the exceptionally preserved fossilized remains of an enigmatic new type of crab, Callichimaera perplexa, which lived approximately 95 million years ago (mid-Cretaceous period) in what are now Colombia and the United States. Callichimaera perplexa. Image credit: Elissa Martin, Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History. Callichimaera perplexa (means ‘perplexing…

BIOLOGY

Tube-Dwelling Anemone Has Biggest Mitochondrial Genome Ever Sequenced

Isarachnanthus nocturnes. Image credit: Stampar et al, doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-42621-z.The banded tube-dwelling anemone (Isarachnanthus nocturnes), a sea creature that resembles a prehistoric flower, now holds the record for the largest mitochondrial genome reported to date: the animal has 80,923 base pairs, compared with humans’ 16,569 base pairs. Isarachnanthus nocturnes. Image credit: Stampar et al, doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-42621-z. Mitochondria are double-membraned structures…

PHYSICS

What Was Universe Like before Big Bang?

An artist’s illustration showing the patterns of signals generated by primordial standard clocks in the Big Bounce theory of the primordial Universe. Image credit: Zhong-Zhi Xianyu, Xingang Chen & Avi Loeb / Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics.Professor Avi Loeb of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and colleagues have proposed a new test for inflation, the theory that our Universe dramatically expanded in size in a fleeting fraction of a second right after the Big Bang. The team’s paper was published in the journal Physical Review Letters. An artist’s illustration showing the patterns of signals generated by primordial…

MEDICINE

Propionate Consumption Increases Levels of Obesity- and Diabetes-Associated Hormones

Propionates are potent inhibitors of molds that are widely used as a food preservative.Propionates, salts of a short-chain fatty acid called propionic acid, are widely used in baked goods, animal feeds and artificial flavorings. Although generally recognized as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the metabolic effects of propionate consumption in humans were unclear until now. According to new research that combined data from a randomized placebo-controlled trial in humans…

GENETICS

Tube-Dwelling Anemone Has Biggest Mitochondrial Genome Ever Sequenced

Isarachnanthus nocturnes. Image credit: Stampar et al, doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-42621-z.The banded tube-dwelling anemone (Isarachnanthus nocturnes), a sea creature that resembles a prehistoric flower, now holds the record for the largest mitochondrial genome reported to date: the animal has 80,923 base pairs, compared with humans’ 16,569 base pairs. Isarachnanthus nocturnes. Image credit: Stampar et al, doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-42621-z. Mitochondria are double-membraned structures…

GEOLOGY

Geologists Offer New Theory about Earth’s Thermal Evolution

After studying thousands of rocks samples dating at least 2.5 billion years old, Kamber & Tomlinson determined the Earth’s upper mantle was much cooler than previously thought. Image credit: NASA / JPL-Caltech.A new theory on the thermal evolution of Earth explains why the planet’s upper mantle was cool enough to produce diamonds in the Archean Eon between 4 billion and 2.5 billion years ago, rather than turning into lumps of common graphite. After studying thousands of rocks samples dating at least 2.5 billion years old, Kamber & Tomlinson determined the Earth’s upper mantle was much cooler than…

OTHER SCIENCES

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Russ Roberts
https://hawaiisciencedigest.net
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