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Welcome to the “Phys.org” update from Hawaii Science Digest.  Views expressed in this science and technology news summary are those of the reporters and correspondents.  Content provided by https://phys.org.

Accessed on 10 May 2019, 0505 UTC.

Source:  https://phys.org

Phys.org is an official publication of the Science X Network.

Here are today’s top science and technology news stories:

Assessing battery performance: Compared to what?

Scientists must often ask themselves, compared to what? How do the results we generate in the laboratory compare with those obtained by others? How do our theoretical calculations compare with experimental data?

New clues about how ancient galaxies lit up the universe

NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope has revealed that some of the universe’s earliest galaxies were brighter than expected. The excess light is a byproduct of the galaxies releasing incredibly high amounts of ionizing radiation. …

Reversible chemistry clears path for safer batteries

Researchers at the University of Maryland (UMD) and US Army Research Lab (ARL) have taken a critical step on the path to high energy batteries by improving their water-in-salt battery with a new type of chemical transformation …

A link between mitochondrial damage and osteoporosis

Some risk factors for osteoporosis such as being older and female or having a family history of the condition cannot be avoided. But others can, like smoking cigarettes, consuming alcohol, taking certain medications, or being …

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The bird that came back from the dead

New research has shown that the last surviving flightless species of bird, a type of rail, in the Indian Ocean had previously gone extinct but rose from the dead thanks to a rare process called ‘iterative evolution’.

Methane-consuming bacteria could be the future of fuel

Known for their ability to remove methane from the environment and convert it into a usable fuel, methanotrophic bacteria have long fascinated researchers. But how, exactly, these bacteria naturally perform such a complex …

The heart ‘talks’ to fat cells, scientists discover

Like sending a letter through the mail or a text over a cellular network, the heart can generate messages that travel long distances through the body. Those messages ultimately reach fat cells, new research by scientists …

Climate change is giving old trees a growth spurt

Larch trees in the permafrost forests of northeastern China—the northernmost tree species on Earth—are growing faster as a result of climate change, according to new research.

How sea level rise affects birds in coastal forests

When saltwater inundates coastal forests as sea levels rise, it kills salt-sensitive trees, leaving “ghost forests” of bare snags behind. A new study from North Carolina State University explores how changes in vegetation …

Uber’s rocky road to global powerhouse

Uber, set to make its stock market debut in one of the largest technology share offerings, has become a disruptive force in local transportation and generated its share of controversies.

Studying DNA breaks to protect future space travelers

Earth’s atmosphere shields life on the ground from cosmic radiation that can damage DNA. Astronauts in space have no such protection, and that puts them at risk. An investigation on the International Space Station examines …

50 US coal power plants shut under Trump

Fifty coal-fired power plants have shut in the United States since President Donald Trump came to office two years ago, an environmental organization said Thursday.

Exploiting parasitic yeast to kill yeast pathogens

Insights into the genes and proteins involved in the predatory behavior of a parasitic yeast species could lead to new strategies for controlling yeast pathogens, according to a study published May 9 in the open-access journal …

How to generate a brain of correct size and composition

To build the neocortex, a brain area involved in higher cognitive functions, stem cells produce billions of neurons of various types. In a Science study, neuroscientists from Switzerland, Belgium, and the Institute of Science …

New analysis predicts top 25 US counties at risk for measles outbreaks

A new analysis co-led by The Johns Hopkins University identified 25 United States counties that are most likely to experience measles outbreaks in 2019. The analysis combined international air travel volume, non-medical exemptions …

In lab, researchers flip pain switch in spinal cord cells

Facing an urgent need for safer and more effective therapies for those suffering from debilitating pain in the midst of an opioid crisis, Saint Louis University researchers are on a mission to find a non-narcotic off-switch …

Substrate defects key to growth of 2-D materials

Creating two-dimentional materials large enough to use in electronics is a challenge despite huge effort but now, Penn State researchers have discovered a method for improving the quality of one class of 2-D materials, with …

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