Breaking Science News|Sci-News

Welcome to the “Breaking Science News” update from Hawaii Science Digest.  Views expressed in this science and technology news summary are those of the reporters and correspondents.  Content supplied by http://www.sci-news.com.  Accessed on 22 May 2019, 0255 UTC.

Source:  http://www.sci-news.com

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ASTRONOMY

Aluminum Monoxide Found around Massive Protostar

An artist’s impression of Orion Source I, a young, massive star about 1,500 light-years away. The blue region -- about 1/3 the way out from the center of the disk -- represents the region where ALMA detected the millimeter-wavelength ‘glow’ from the salts. Image credit: NRAO / AUI / NSF / S. Dagnello.Astronomers using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) have spotted aluminum monoxide (AlO) molecules in the gas surrounding Orion Source I, the 10-solar-mass protostar about 1,500 light-years away. An artist’s impression of Orion Source I, a young, massive star about 1,500 light-years away. Image credit: NRAO / AUI / NSF / S. Dagnello. “Disks of gas surround young stars,”…

SPACE EXPLORATION

Study Sheds New Light on Origin of Libyan Desert Glass

This image shows Tutankhamun's pectoral with a scarab carved from the Libyan Desert Glass. Image credit: Jon Bodsworth.Libyan desert glass is a natural glass found in western Egypt that formed 29 million years ago, however its origin is disputed: the two main formation hypotheses include melting by meteorite impact or melting by a large atmospheric airburst. A new study by a duo of researchers from Australia and Austria supports the hypothesis that Libyan desert glass was created by a meteorite impact. Nearly pure…

ARCHAEOLOGY

Archaeologists Find High-Quality Jadeite Tool at Ancient Maya Salt-Working Site in Belize

The jadeite gouge after discovery. Image credit: Heather McKillop.A team of archaeologists has found a jadeite gouge with a rosewood handle at Ek Way Nal, a Classic Maya salt-working site in Belize. The jadeite gouge after discovery. Image credit: Heather McKillop. Jadeite is a hard rock that varies from translucent to opaque. During the Classic Period of 300-900 CE, high-quality translucent jadeite was typically reserved for unique and elaborate jadeite plaques,…

PALEONTOLOGY

99-Million-Year-Old Ammonite Found in Burmese Amber

The ammonite Puzosia sp. Image credit: Yu et al, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1821292116.An international team of paleontologists has found a piece of amber containing the beautifully preserved ammonite, several marine and land organisms that lived 99 million years ago (Cretaceous period). The 99-million-year-old piece of amber from northern Myanmar. Image credit: Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology. The ammonite-bearing piece of amber was obtained from a mine located near…

BIOLOGY

Chimps Use Tools to Excavate Underground Food, Study Says

This study was conducted on a colony of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) housed at the Kristiansand Zoo in Kristiansand, Norway. Image credit: Motes-Rodrigo et al, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0215644.Naïve chimpanzees are able to spontaneously use tools in order to excavate underground food, according to a new study, published in the journal PLoS ONE. The animals prefer longer tools for excavation and exhibit six different tool use behaviors in the context of excavation: digging, probing, perforating, pounding, shoveling and enlarging. This study was conducted on a colony of chimpanzees (Pan…

PHYSICS

Gravitational Waves Leave Observable Aftereffects in Universe

Gravitational waves observed by Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) twin detectors were produced during the final fraction of a second of the merger of two black holes to produce a single, more massive spinning black hole. Image credit: T. Pyle / LIGO.Gravitational waves are ‘ripples’ in space-time caused by some of the most violent and energetic processes in the Universe. Albert Einstein predicted the existence of gravitational waves in 1916 in his general theory of relativity. New research shows those waves leave behind plenty of ‘memories’ that could help detect them even after they’ve passed. Gravitational waves observed by Laser…

MEDICINE

Coffee Suppresses Gut Microbiome, Improves Ability of Intestine to Contract: Study

Hegde et al, feeding rats coffee and also mixing it with gut bacteria in Petri dishes, found that coffee suppressed bacteria and increased muscle motility. Image credit: Free Photos.New experiments, performed in vitro on bacterial cultures and in vivo in rats, show that coffee — regardless of caffeine content — inhibits gut microbiota and stimulates intestinal smooth muscle contractility. Hegde et al, feeding rats coffee and also mixing it with gut bacteria in Petri dishes, found that coffee suppressed bacteria and increased muscle motility. Image credit: Free Photos. “Coffee…

GENETICS

Scientists Assemble Pan-Genome of Cultivated Tomato and Its Wild Relatives

Gao et al present a tomato pan-genome constructed using genome sequences of 725 phylogenetically and geographically representative accessions, revealing 4,873 genes absent from the reference genome. Image credit: Hans Braxmeier.An international team of researchers led by Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research and the U.S. Department of Agriculture- Agricultural Research Service has created a pan-genome that captures all of the genetic information of 725 cultivated and wild tomatoes, establishing a resource that promises to help breeders develop more flavorful and sustainable varieties. The team found 4,873 new genes…

GEOLOGY

Study Sheds New Light on Origin of Libyan Desert Glass

This image shows Tutankhamun's pectoral with a scarab carved from the Libyan Desert Glass. Image credit: Jon Bodsworth.Libyan desert glass is a natural glass found in western Egypt that formed 29 million years ago, however its origin is disputed: the two main formation hypotheses include melting by meteorite impact or melting by a large atmospheric airburst. A new study by a duo of researchers from Australia and Austria supports the hypothesis that Libyan desert glass was created by a meteorite impact. Nearly pure…

OTHER SCIENCES

Coffee Suppresses Gut Microbiome, Improves Ability of Intestine to Contract: Study

Hegde et al, feeding rats coffee and also mixing it with gut bacteria in Petri dishes, found that coffee suppressed bacteria and increased muscle motility. Image credit: Free Photos.New experiments, performed in vitro on bacterial cultures and in vivo in rats, show that coffee — regardless of caffeine content — inhibits gut microbiota and stimulates intestinal smooth muscle contractility. Hegde et al, feeding rats coffee and also mixing it with gut bacteria in Petri dishes, found that coffee suppressed bacteria and increased muscle motility. Image credit: Free Photos. “Coffee…

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Russ Roberts
https://hawaiisciencedigest.com
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