Scientists are hopeful that a new drug — called EIDD-2801 — could change the way doctors treat COVID-19. The drug shows promise in reducing lung damage, has finished testing in mice and will soon move to human clinical trials.
Both surgical and cotton masks were found to be ineffective for preventing the dissemination of SARS-CoV-2 from the coughs of patients with COVID-19. A study conducted at two hospitals in Seoul, South Korea, found that when COVID-19 patients coughed into either type of mask, droplets of virus were released to the environment and external mask surface. A brief research report is published in Annals
Can we tell with the naked eye if any cold-chain food products that we have received have gone bad? A cold-chain safety sticker was developed, which indicates whether any cold-chain food products, such as fish, meat, and fruits and vegetables, have spoiled. This cold-chain safety sticker creates an image on it when exposed to room temperature. Room temperature exposure history and time throughout
Ride-hailing trips increase the number of crashes for motorists and pedestrians at pick-up and drop-off locations, reports a new study from researchers at the Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health. The research is the first to use data for individual ride-hailing trips, rather than comparing cities where ride-hailing is available to those where it is not available.
Many popular fertility and pregnancy planning apps may be inaccurate, suggest the results of a scoping review of the available evidence, published online in the journal BMJ Sexual & Reproductive Health.
A team of physician-scientists at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center are now enrolling patients in a clinical trial to evaluate a common anti-clotting drug for the treatment of COVID-19-positive patients with ARDS. The newly launched trial follows a special report the team published in the Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery that suggested the use of a drug called tPA could reduce deaths am
Research from Rohit N. Kulkarni’s lab at Joslin Diabetes Center has uncovered a biomarker in humans tied to the development of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease that might help doctors detect early stages of the disease. The researchers also determined that this biomarker, a protein known as ‘neuronal regeneration related protein’ (or NREP), plays a significant role in the regulation of a pathway
New analysis of data from NASA’s Cassini spacecraft found that electric currents, triggered by interactions between solar winds and charged particles from Saturn’s moons, spark the auroras and heat the planet’s upper atmosphere.
Researchers identified a way to measure frailty using patients’ medical claims that more accurately predicts costs-of-care, especially for clinicians with disproportionate shares of frail patients. Adding this measure to Medicare’s value-based payment models could lead to fairer reimbursement for clinicians who care for patients with greater needs. Findings from a retrospective cohort study are pu
Since the 1980s, a mountaintop mine in West Virginia has been leaching selenium into nearby streams at levels deemed unsafe for aquatic life. Now, even though the mine is closed, a Duke University-led study finds high concentrations of selenium in emerging stream insects and the spiders that eat them along the banks, an indication that the contaminant moves from water to land as it moves up the fo
Gregory Sword and colleagues at Texas A&M University inoculated cotton seeds with a diverse array of fungal isolates and tested the resulting seedlings in greenhouse trials for susceptibility to gall formation by root knot nematodes. A majority (77%) of the fungal treatments reduced galling and these reductions were highly repeatable across independent trials.
Scientists have developed a precise, nanotechnology-based treatment to alleviate the pain and fertility problems associated with endometriosis, a common gynecological condition in women of childbearing age.
A team working to combat the COVID-19 virus has a system that will unlock researchers’ ability to more quickly develop and evaluate developing vaccines, diagnose infected patients and explore whether or how the virus has evolved. The scientists developed the system by engineering a reverse genetic system for SARS coronavirus 2, or SARS-CoV-2, that is causing the current COVID-19 pandemic. The stud
Scientists have been striving to establish the existence of quantum spin liquids, a new state of matter, since the 1970s. A recent discovery by University of Arkansas physicists could help researchers solve the mystery and result in the next generation of computing.
Researchers from Washington University in St. Louis studied the gut microbiomes of wild apes in the Republic of Congo, of captive apes in zoos in the US, and of people from around the world and discovered that lifestyle is more important than geography or even species in determining the makeup of the gut microbiome.
Clemson University researchers have conducted a study that may someday lead to better cavity prevention measures and treatments. The team examined the oral mycobiome by taking a site-specific approach — looking at both tooth and mouth health — which enabled them to categorize each plaque sample along a continuum. They identified 139 species of fungus that live in human dental plaque, including n
Think your daily coffee, boutique gym membership and airport lounge access cost a lot? There may be an additional, hidden cost to those luxuries of urban living, says a new Johns Hopkins University study: more flooding.For every percentage point increase in roads, parking lots and other impervious surfaces that prevent water from flowing into the ground, annual floods increase on average by 3.3%,
One of NASA’s satellites that can measure the rate in which rainfall is occurring in storms passed over powerful Tropical Cyclone Harold just after it made landfall in Vanuatu in the Southern Pacific Ocean.
NTU Singapore scientists have created a paper-like material derived from pollen that bends and curls in response to changing levels of environmental humidity. The ability of this paper made from pollen to alter its mechanical characteristics in response to external stimuli may make it useful in a wide range of applications, from artificial muscles to sensors. Combined with digital printing, it may
Scientists have long known that the ocean plays an essential role in capturing carbon from the atmosphere, but a new study from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) shows that the efficiency of the ocean’s ‘biological carbon pump’ has been drastically underestimated, with implications for future climate assessments.
Some islands have such low elevation, that mere inches of sea-level rise will flood them, but higher, larger islands will also be affected by changes in climate and an understanding of ancient practices in times of climate change might help populations survive, according to researchers.
Recent archaeological and paleoenvironmental research in the Arabian Peninsula shows a range of societal responses to a series of extreme climatic and environmental fluctuations over thousands of years. These responses include migration, increasing population mobility, the introduction of pastoral lifeways, the management of water resources, and the construction of diverse structures to aid surviv
In the wake of the novel coronavirus pandemic, Texas A&M University chemist Wenshe Ray Liu and his research team have focused their lab solely on searching for drugs to treat COVID-19. The Liu group was the first to identify the antiviral drug remdesivir as a viable medicine to treat COVID-19 in a research study published in late January. The drug was originally developed in response to the 2014 E
As the human race continues to battle the COVID-19 pandemic, scientists have found that the planet’s insects are also facing a crisis after accelerating rates of extinction have led to a worldwide fall in insect numbers.
A CNIC study published in JACC demonstrates that atheroma plaques extend rapidly in the arteries of asymptomatic individuals aged between 40 and 50 years participating in the PESA-CNIC-Santander study.
Bird species that have the capacity to express novel foraging behaviors are less vulnerable to extinction than species that do not, according to a collaborative study involving McGill University and CREAF Barcelona and published today in Nature Ecology & Evolution.
They say variety is the spice of life, and now new discoveries from Johns Hopkins researchers suggest that a certain elemental ‘variety’ — sulfur — is indeed a ‘spice’ that can perhaps point to signs of life.
A new therapy could combat persistent joint infections in horses, potentially saving them from years of pain. Morris Animal Foundation-funded researchers at North Carolina State University have developed a platelet-rich plasma (PRP) lysate that, when teamed with antibiotics, can eradicate bacterial biofilms common in joint infections. The therapy could also be applied to other species, including h
Just like we orbit the sun and the moon orbits us, the Milky Way has satellite galaxies with their own satellites. Drawing from data on those galactic neighbors, a new model suggests the Milky Way should have an additional 100 or so very faint satellite galaxies awaiting discovery.
A systematic review of four randomized controlled trials on masks done between 1990 and last month shows the use of medical masks did not increase viral respiratory infection or clinical respiratory illness.
Radiolabeled molecules help nuclear physicians to detect and precisely target tumors, which are often developing due to pathological changes in metabolic processes. Using positron emission tomography, scientists at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have now developed the first radiotracer labelled with the fluorine isotope 18F, which can visualize special transport proteins often found i
In people with type 1 diabetes without known cardiovascular disease, the presence of autoantibodies against heart muscle proteins was associated with cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging evidence of increased volume of the left ventricle (the heart’s main pumping chamber), increased muscle mass, and reduced pumping function (ejection fraction), features that are associated with higher risk of
90 years ago, the physicist Hans Bethe postulated that unusual patterns, so-called Bethe strings, appear in certain magnetic solids. Now an international team has succeeded in experimentally detecting such Bethe strings for the first time. They used neutron scattering experiments at various neutron facilities including the unique high-field magnet of BER II at HZB. The experimental data are in exc
In a new paper, which will appear in print in an upcoming special issue of Social Psychological and Personality Science, Michael Pasek, Jeremy Ginges, and colleagues find that, across religious groups in Fiji and Israel, religious believers see God as encouraging people to treat others in a more universal, or equal, manner.
A targeted therapy, currently being studied for treatment of certain cancers including glioblastoma, may also be beneficial in treating other neurologic diseases, a study at the University of Cincinnati shows.
From Steve Jobs to Mark Zuckerberg, the stories of prosperous, young innovators drive the American economic narrative. However, the truth is that older business entrepreneurs may be just as well suited to success. And older women are far more successful at launching a business than their younger counterparts.
The Biogerontology Research Foundation, a registered UK charity supporting and promoting aging and longevity research worldwide since 2008, today announced the publication of a paper titled ‘Geroprotective and senoremediative strategies to reduce the comorbidity, infection rates, severity, and lethality in gerophilic and gerolavic infections’ in the leading journal Aging.
In an article just published in JAMA Health Forum, nurse researchers from the University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing (Penn Nursing) underscore that while responses to the problem have resulted in well-motivated innovations, an effective and actionable path for immediate and long-term remediation should encompass micro- and macro-level solutions.
Morten Bennedsen, INSEAD Professor of Economics and the André and Rosalie Hoffmann Chaired Professor of Family Enterprise, along with colleagues Francisco Perez-Gonzalez (ITAM and NBER) and Daniel Wolfenzon (Columbia University and NBER) decided to find out how much CEOs matter by measuring the impact on firm performance when a CEO is absent, specifically, hospitalised.
The style by which livestock are managed, but not an animal’s age, plays an important role in transmission risk of PPRV, which produces a highly infectious and often fatal disease in sheep and goats. These findings have important implications for control of this widespread virus.
Lead-based perovskites efficiently turn light into electricity but they also present some major drawbacks: the most efficient materials are not very stable, while lead is a toxic element. University of Groningen scientists are studying alternatives to lead-based perovskites. It is very important to investigate in situ how lead-free perovskite crystals form and how the crystal structure affects the
Researchers in the lab of Joslin’s Yu-Hua Tseng, PhD, a Senior Investigator in the Section on Integrative Physiology and Metabolism at Joslin Diabetes Center, have discovered an unexpected biological pathway by which brown fat cells can translate energy into heat.
It’s the outside that counts: Their charisma has an impact on the introduction and image of alien species and can even hinder their control. An international research team, led by the Biology Centre of the Czech Academy of Sciences and the Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (IGB), have investigated the influence of charisma on the management of invasive species.
An international panel of cancer experts has recommended a one-week course of radiotherapy and delaying surgery as the best way to treat patients with bowel cancer during the COVID-19 pandemic. The short course of treatment involves higher-intensity radiation rather than five weeks of radiotherapy coupled with chemotherapy. Surgery, which normally happens one to two weeks after radiotherapy, can b
Researchers at Yokohama National University (YNU) meticulously examined cellulose nanofibers extracted from spent coffee grounds, identifying them as a viable new raw source. The YNU team, led by Izuru Kawamura, an associate professor at the Graduate School of Engineering Science, set out to build upon previous research into extracting cellulose nanofibers from coffee grounds. They published their
The oceans help buffer the Earth from climate change by absorbing carbon dioxide and heat at the surface and transporting it to the deep ocean. Using data from two open-ocean research programs at the Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences, new research published in Nature Climate Change indicates the North Atlantic Subtropical Mode Water, an upper ocean water mass, is shrinking in a changing climate
As the world grapples with the COVID-19 pandemic, a new mathematical model could offer insights on how to improve future epidemic predictions based on how information mutates as it is transmitted from person to person and group to group. The Army Research Office funded this model, developed by researchers at Carnegie Mellon University and Princeton University.
Marine microorganisms play a very important role in global cycles such as of the uptake of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. However, little is known about how they function. New approaches by an international research team with the participation of the GEOMAR, Kiel, Germany are for the first time laying the foundation for a more detailed genetic investigation of some key phytoplankton organisms
Global climate change will affect fish sizes in unpredictable ways and, consequently, impact complex food webs in our oceans, a new IMAS-led study has shown.Led by IMAS and Centre for Marine Socioecology scientist Dr Asta Audzijonyte and published in the journal Nature Ecology and Evolution, the study analysed three decades of data from 30 000 surveys of rocky and coral reefs around Australia.
MIT neuroscientists have identified populations of cells that encode distinctive segments of an overall experience. These chunks of memory are encoded separately from the neural code that stores detailed memories of a specific experience.
Researchers have made a major breakthrough in developing gene-editing tools to improve our understanding of one of the most important ocean microbes on the planet.The international project, co-led by scientists at the University of East Anglia in the UK, unlocks the potential of the largest untapped genetic resource for the development of natural products such as novel antibacterial, antiviral, an
Patients with colon cancer, but no distant metastases, can benefit from a short course of immunotherapy while waiting for their surgery, as it can cause tumours to shrink substantially or clear up in a very short time. This is the finding of the phase II NICHE study led by Myriam Chalabi from the Netherlands Cancer Institute. In patients with the MSI subtype (MSI) the response rate was 100%. In th
University of Groningen scientists observed the characteristics of a single enzyme inside a nanopore. This revealed that the enzyme can exist in four different folded states, or conformers, that play an active role in the reaction mechanism. These results will have consequences for enzyme engineering and the development of inhibitors. The study was published in Nature Chemistry on April 6.
With the goal of ensuring that single-cell RNA sequencing, a current focus of intense research, makes use of the best possible methods, an international group has benchmarked 13 different methods. The group, led by Holger Heyn of the Centro Nacional de Análisis Genómico (CNAG-CRG) in Spain, found that the Quartz-seq2 method, developed by a team in the RIKEN Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research,
Using a bedroom air filter that traps particles of pollution with diameters smaller than 2.5 micrometers can significantly improve breathing in asthmatic children, a new Duke University-led study by American and Chinese scientists shows. It’s the first study to document that physiological improvements occur in the children’s airways when the air filters are in use, and it suggests that with consis
Researchers looked at whether there was a long-term association between using video games at an early age and later weight as a teenager, as well as what role behaviors such as physical activity, the regularity of bedtimes and consuming sugar-sweetened beverages might play.
What combination of healthy lifestyle factors were associated with the most years lived without chronic diseases was the focus of this analysis that included data from more than 100,000 adults who were participants in 12 European studies.
We may try to consciously make good food choices, but our bodies have their own way of weighing in. A new study reveals a learning mechanism orchestrated by the digestive and nervous systems that leads animals to actively seek out certain foods. These results are a step towards understanding how eating-related disorders, such as obesity, occur.
The first paper from the NIH-funded A4 study supports the hypothesis that higher levels of amyloid protein in the brain represent an early stage of Alzheimer’s disease. Screening data for the study show that amyloid burden in clinically normal older adults is associated with a family history of disease, lower cognitive test scores, and reports of declines in daily cognitive function.
The project Electronic AXONs: wireless microstimulators based on electronic rectification of epidermically applied currents (eAXON, 2017-2022), funded by a European Research Council (ERC) Consolidator Grant awarded to Antoni Ivorra, head of the Biomedical Electronics Research Group (BERG) of the Department of Information and Communication Technologies (DTIC) at UPF principally aims to ‘develop ver
Since its accidental introduction in 2003 in France, the yellow-legged Asian hornet Vespa velutina nigrithorax is rapidly spreading through Europe. In a new paper, published in the open-access journal Neobiota, French scientists try to estimate the costs of the invasion regarding the potential damage to apiculture and pollination services.
Background: Tourette syndrome is a common nerve development disorder which is characterized by a variety of muscle or vocal movements called ‘tics’, often involuntary. The disorder is reflectively and quite erroneously associated by many as a just syndrome with tics and the frequent use of undesirable language (swearing). However, Tourette syndrome is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder with sever
Some insect wings such as cicada and dragonfly possess nanopillar structures that kill bacteria upon contact. However, to date, the precise mechanisms that cause bacterial death have been unknown. Using a range of advanced imaging tools, functional assays and proteomic analyses, a study by the University of Bristol has identified new ways in which nanopillars can damage bacteria.
Nuclear bomb tests during the Cold War in the 1950s and 1960s have helped scientists accurately estimate the age of whale sharks, the biggest fish in the seas, according to a Rutgers-led study. It’s the first time the age of this majestic species has been verified. One whale shark was an estimated 50 years old when it died, making it the oldest known of its kind. Another shark was an estimated 35
New research from the Cancer Science Institute of Singapore at the National University of Singapore revealed a genetic variant in a gene called MET that is responsible for more aggressive growth of head and neck, and lung cancers in Asian populations.
When an accident involving oil spills occurs, forecasting the behaviour of the oil slick and understanding in advance where and when it will reach the coastline is crucial to organize an efficient emergency response that is able to limit environmental and economic repercussions. A study led by CMCC Foundation’s researchers, based on the concrete case study of the 2018 oil spill accident off Corsic
Researchers from Kumamoto and Kobe Universities in Japan have successfully developed a system for predicting the severity of Alport syndrome, a serious hereditary kidney disease. By analyzing the genotype of the causative protein, type IV collagen, with a proprietary evaluation system, the researchers successfully predicted the severity of future nephropathy.
Researchers have observed directly and for the first time magnetoacoustic waves (sound-driven spin waves), which are considered as potential information carriers for novel computation schemes. These waves have been generated and observed on hybrid magnetic/piezoelectric devices. The experiments were designed by a collaboration between the University of Barcelona (UB), the Institute of Materials Sc
A group of scientists from Aarhus University in Denmark and University of Siena in Italy has found another small piece in the puzzle of understanding COVID-19. Looking for reasons why the mortality rate is up to 12% in the northern part of Italy and only approx. 4.5% in the rest of the country, they found a probable correlation between air pollution and mortality in two of the worst affected regio
Japanese researchers have found that elderly carriers of a specific DsbA-L gene type are at increased risk for lung function decline. The protein DsbA-L is known to be an antioxidant and enhances the function of the beneficial protein adiponectin. Decreased expression of the DsbA-L gene in lung tissue resulted in an increase in oxidative stress and mucous production. The researchers expect that pr
Michigan State University’s Lars Brudvig, associate professor in the Department of Plant Biology, and former MSU graduate student Anna Funk investigated fields of data going back 20 years to find out why some replanted prairies are healthier than others. Their research is published in Scientific Reports.
Scientists from the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences (IPC PAS) in cooperation with the Faculty of Chemistry of the Warsaw University of Technology (WUT) have developed a new, solvent-free method for the encapsulation of drug molecules in MOF (Metal-Organic Framework) porous materials.
Researchers examined whether steel slag that had been used to treat wastewater could then be recycled as an aggregate material for concrete. Their findings? Concrete made with post-treatment steel slag was about 17% stronger than concrete made with conventional aggregates, and 8% stronger than raw steel slag.
Recently, a team of Chinese scientists and their collaborators at the Institute of Solid State Physics of the Hefei Institutes of Physical Science examined polyamorphism in the molecular substance SO 2 .
The challenges of COVID-19 will require hospital leaders, practitioners and regional officials to adopt drastic measures that challenge the standard way of providing care. The RAND Corporation has created a simple-to-use online tool that allows decision-makers at all levels — hospitals, health care systems, states, regions — to estimate current critical care capacity and rapidly explore strategi
Using a modified natural substance along with current approaches could improve colon cancer treatment, according to findings by University of California, Irvine biologists. The discovery comes from their research into the role of an amino acid in tumor development and a potential method for reversing the process. Their paper appears in Nature Cancer. The disease is the second-leading cause of canc
It is clear that we must prioritize identifying and alleviating the conditions that made the Covid-19 pandemic possible. Even as it rages, scientists are already asking if it is more than just a virus, but rather a symptom emerging from something much deeper, a nonlinear dynamical system of coupled pathologies underlying a veneer of ‘progress’ in an increasingly fragile, volatile, hyperconnected w
One strategy to make biofuels more competitive is to make plants do some of the work themselves. Scientists can engineer plants to produce valuable chemical compounds, or bioproducts, as they grow. Then the bioproducts can be extracted from the plant and the remaining plant material can be converted into fuel. But one important part of this strategy has remained unclear — exactly how much of a pa
Retired News director of Pacific Radio Group Radio Stations on Hawaii-the Big Island. I have more than 40 years of broadcast experience, including positons at KTUH-FM (UH-Manoa), KPOI-FM (Honolulu). KHLO-AM (Hilo), KKBG-FM (KBIG-FM)(Hilo/Kona), KAPA-FM (Hilo-Kona). Native-FM (Hilo-Kona), and ESPN Hawaii (Hilo-Kona). Former University of Hawaii-Hilo librarian. Retired Air Force Officer. Amatuer (Ham) Radio operator since 1977 (currently holds the Amateur Extra Class License from the FCC-KH6JRM).... Can read, write, and speak Russian. Retired on 30 September 2011, but still maintains a Hawaii Island News Blog.