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A new drug shows promise against COVID-19

Welcome to the “Eurekalert.org” update from Hawaii Science Digest.

Top Story:  A new drug called EIDD-2801 could reduce lung damage caused by the coronavirus.  Drug testing on mice has been completed.  Further trials are planned.

Views expressed in this science and technology news summary are those of the reporters and correspondents.

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A new antiviral drug heading into clinical trials offers hope for COVID-19 treatment

 

Scientists are hopeful that a new drug — called EIDD-2801 — could change the way doctors treat COVID-19. The drug shows promise in reducing lung damage, has finished testing in mice and will soon move to human clinical trials.

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Neither surgical nor cotton masks effectively filter SARS COV-2

 

Both surgical and cotton masks were found to be ineffective for preventing the dissemination of SARS-CoV-2 from the coughs of patients with COVID-19. A study conducted at two hospitals in Seoul, South Korea, found that when COVID-19 patients coughed into either type of mask, droplets of virus were released to the environment and external mask surface. A brief research report is published in Annals

TODAY

Development of a sticker that indicates whether cold-chain food products have gone bad

 

Can we tell with the naked eye if any cold-chain food products that we have received have gone bad? A cold-chain safety sticker was developed, which indicates whether any cold-chain food products, such as fish, meat, and fruits and vegetables, have spoiled. This cold-chain safety sticker creates an image on it when exposed to room temperature. Room temperature exposure history and time throughout

Ride-hailing linked to more crashes for motorists and pedestrians

 

Ride-hailing trips increase the number of crashes for motorists and pedestrians at pick-up and drop-off locations, reports a new study from researchers at the Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health. The research is the first to use data for individual ride-hailing trips, rather than comparing cities where ride-hailing is available to those where it is not available.

Men pose more risk to other road users than women

 

do and they are more likely to drive more dangerous vehicles, reveals the first study of its kind, published online in the journal Injury Prevention.

Doubts cast over accuracy of many popular fertility and pregnancy planning apps

 

Many popular fertility and pregnancy planning apps may be inaccurate, suggest the results of a scoping review of the available evidence, published online in the journal BMJ Sexual & Reproductive Health.

Clinical trial to assess potential treatment for COVID-19-related respiratory failure

 

A team of physician-scientists at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center are now enrolling patients in a clinical trial to evaluate a common anti-clotting drug for the treatment of COVID-19-positive patients with ARDS. The newly launched trial follows a special report the team published in the Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery that suggested the use of a drug called tPA could reduce deaths am

Potential early biomarker to track development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

 

Research from Rohit N. Kulkarni’s lab at Joslin Diabetes Center has uncovered a biomarker in humans tied to the development of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease that might help doctors detect early stages of the disease. The researchers also determined that this biomarker, a protein known as ‘neuronal regeneration related protein’ (or NREP), plays a significant role in the regulation of a pathway

What makes Saturn’s atmosphere so hot

 

New analysis of data from NASA’s Cassini spacecraft found that electric currents, triggered by interactions between solar winds and charged particles from Saturn’s moons, spark the auroras and heat the planet’s upper atmosphere.

Adding a measure of patient frailty to Medicare payment model could lead to fairer reimbursement for clinicians

 

Researchers identified a way to measure frailty using patients’ medical claims that more accurately predicts costs-of-care, especially for clinicians with disproportionate shares of frail patients. Adding this measure to Medicare’s value-based payment models could lead to fairer reimbursement for clinicians who care for patients with greater needs. Findings from a retrospective cohort study are pu

Stream pollution from mountaintop mining doesn’t stay put in the water

 

Since the 1980s, a mountaintop mine in West Virginia has been leaching selenium into nearby streams at levels deemed unsafe for aquatic life. Now, even though the mine is closed, a Duke University-led study finds high concentrations of selenium in emerging stream insects and the spiders that eat them along the banks, an indication that the contaminant moves from water to land as it moves up the fo

Fungi found in cotton can decrease root knot nematode galling

 

Gregory Sword and colleagues at Texas A&M University inoculated cotton seeds with a diverse array of fungal isolates and tested the resulting seedlings in greenhouse trials for susceptibility to gall formation by root knot nematodes. A majority (77%) of the fungal treatments reduced galling and these reductions were highly repeatable across independent trials.

Researchers use nanotechnology to develop new treatment for endometriosis

 

Scientists have developed a precise, nanotechnology-based treatment to alleviate the pain and fertility problems associated with endometriosis, a common gynecological condition in women of childbearing age.

Development of new system for combatting COVID-19 that can be used for other viruses

 

A team working to combat the COVID-19 virus has a system that will unlock researchers’ ability to more quickly develop and evaluate developing vaccines, diagnose infected patients and explore whether or how the virus has evolved. The scientists developed the system by engineering a reverse genetic system for SARS coronavirus 2, or SARS-CoV-2, that is causing the current COVID-19 pandemic. The stud

Compound in fruit peels halts damage and spurs neuronal repair in multiple sclerosis

 

Ursolic acid, abundant in fruit peels and some herbs, both prevents and repairs neurons in animal models of multiple sclerosis.

Researchers help expand search for new state of matter

 

Scientists have been striving to establish the existence of quantum spin liquids, a new state of matter, since the 1970s. A recent discovery by University of Arkansas physicists could help researchers solve the mystery and result in the next generation of computing.

Lifestyle trumps geography in determining makeup of gut microbiome

 

Researchers from Washington University in St. Louis studied the gut microbiomes of wild apes in the Republic of Congo, of captive apes in zoos in the US, and of people from around the world and discovered that lifestyle is more important than geography or even species in determining the makeup of the gut microbiome.

Clemson researchers unraveling role of fungi in early childhood dental health

 

Clemson University researchers have conducted a study that may someday lead to better cavity prevention measures and treatments. The team examined the oral mycobiome by taking a site-specific approach — looking at both tooth and mouth health — which enabled them to categorize each plaque sample along a continuum. They identified 139 species of fungus that live in human dental plaque, including n

More pavement, more problems

 

Think your daily coffee, boutique gym membership and airport lounge access cost a lot? There may be an additional, hidden cost to those luxuries of urban living, says a new Johns Hopkins University study: more flooding.For every percentage point increase in roads, parking lots and other impervious surfaces that prevent water from flowing into the ground, annual floods increase on average by 3.3%,

NASA finds heavy rainfall in powerful tropical cyclone Harold

 

One of NASA’s satellites that can measure the rate in which rainfall is occurring in storms passed over powerful Tropical Cyclone Harold just after it made landfall in Vanuatu in the Southern Pacific Ocean.

Pollen-based ‘paper’ holds promise for new generation of natural components

 

NTU Singapore scientists have created a paper-like material derived from pollen that bends and curls in response to changing levels of environmental humidity. The ability of this paper made from pollen to alter its mechanical characteristics in response to external stimuli may make it useful in a wide range of applications, from artificial muscles to sensors. Combined with digital printing, it may

Climate change encouraged colonization of South Pacific Islands earlier than first thought

 

Research led by scientists at the University of Southampton has found settlers arrived in East Polynesia around 200 years earlier than previously thought.

The ocean’s ‘biological pump’ captures more carbon than expected

 

Scientists have long known that the ocean plays an essential role in capturing carbon from the atmosphere, but a new study from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) shows that the efficiency of the ocean’s ‘biological carbon pump’ has been drastically underestimated, with implications for future climate assessments.

Leaving its mark: How frailty impacts the blood

 

Fifteen blood metabolites are key for diagnosing the age-related disorder, frailty, new study finds.

Indigenous knowledge could reveal ways to weather climate change on islands

 

Some islands have such low elevation, that mere inches of sea-level rise will flood them, but higher, larger islands will also be affected by changes in climate and an understanding of ancient practices in times of climate change might help populations survive, according to researchers.

Societal transformations and resilience in Arabia across 12,000 years of climate change

 

Recent archaeological and paleoenvironmental research in the Arabian Peninsula shows a range of societal responses to a series of extreme climatic and environmental fluctuations over thousands of years. These responses include migration, increasing population mobility, the introduction of pastoral lifeways, the management of water resources, and the construction of diverse structures to aid surviv

One-third of younger age groups in northwestern São Paulo lack antibodies against measles

 

A population study conducted at a regional center of the state of São Paulo (Brazil) showed that 32.9% of subjects under 40 had no immunity against the disease, compared with only 1% in those over 50.

Texas A&M chemists working on drugs To treat COVID-19

 

In the wake of the novel coronavirus pandemic, Texas A&M University chemist Wenshe Ray Liu and his research team have focused their lab solely on searching for drugs to treat COVID-19. The Liu group was the first to identify the antiviral drug remdesivir as a viable medicine to treat COVID-19 in a research study published in late January. The drug was originally developed in response to the 2014 E

Scientists’ warning to humanity on insect extinctions

 

As the human race continues to battle the COVID-19 pandemic, scientists have found that the planet’s insects are also facing a crisis after accelerating rates of extinction have led to a worldwide fall in insect numbers.

Atherosclerosis progresses rapidly in healthy people from the age of 40

 

A CNIC study published in JACC demonstrates that atheroma plaques extend rapidly in the arteries of asymptomatic individuals aged between 40 and 50 years participating in the PESA-CNIC-Santander study.

Innovative birds are less vulnerable to extinction

 

Bird species that have the capacity to express novel foraging behaviors are less vulnerable to extinction than species that do not, according to a collaborative study involving McGill University and CREAF Barcelona and published today in Nature Ecology & Evolution.

Sulfur ‘spices’ alien atmospheres

 

They say variety is the spice of life, and now new discoveries from Johns Hopkins researchers suggest that a certain elemental ‘variety’ — sulfur — is indeed a ‘spice’ that can perhaps point to signs of life.

Changes in brain attention may underlie autism

 

New research in JNeurosci explores how a particular region of the brainstem might explain differences in attention in people with autism.

New therapy could combat persistent joint infections in horses

 

A new therapy could combat persistent joint infections in horses, potentially saving them from years of pain. Morris Animal Foundation-funded researchers at North Carolina State University have developed a platelet-rich plasma (PRP) lysate that, when teamed with antibiotics, can eradicate bacterial biofilms common in joint infections. The therapy could also be applied to other species, including h

The Milky Way’s satellites help reveal link between dark matter halos and galaxy formation

 

Just like we orbit the sun and the moon orbits us, the Milky Way has satellite galaxies with their own satellites. Drawing from data on those galactic neighbors, a new model suggests the Milky Way should have an additional 100 or so very faint satellite galaxies awaiting discovery.

Artificial light in the Arctic

 

A new study examine how artificial light during the polar night disrupts Arctic fish and zooplankton behavior down to 200 meters in depth, which could affect fish counts.

Surgical masks good for most COVID-19 treatment: McMaster

 

A systematic review of four randomized controlled trials on masks done between 1990 and last month shows the use of medical masks did not increase viral respiratory infection or clinical respiratory illness.

Synthesis against the clock

 

Radiolabeled molecules help nuclear physicians to detect and precisely target tumors, which are often developing due to pathological changes in metabolic processes. Using positron emission tomography, scientists at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have now developed the first radiotracer labelled with the fluorine isotope 18F, which can visualize special transport proteins often found i

Autoimmunity-associated heart dilation tied to heart-failure risk in type 1 diabetes

 

In people with type 1 diabetes without known cardiovascular disease, the presence of autoantibodies against heart muscle proteins was associated with cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging evidence of increased volume of the left ventricle (the heart’s main pumping chamber), increased muscle mass, and reduced pumping function (ejection fraction), features that are associated with higher risk of

Condensed matter: Bethe strings experimentally observed

 

90 years ago, the physicist Hans Bethe postulated that unusual patterns, so-called Bethe strings, appear in certain magnetic solids. Now an international team has succeeded in experimentally detecting such Bethe strings for the first time. They used neutron scattering experiments at various neutron facilities including the unique high-field magnet of BER II at HZB. The experimental data are in exc

NASA finds Tropical Storm Irondro’s heavy rainfall displaced

 

NASA analyzed Tropical Storm Irondro’s rainfall and found heaviest rainfall was being pushed far southeast of the center because of strong wind shear.

Religious believers think God values lives of out-group members more than they do

 

In a new paper, which will appear in print in an upcoming special issue of Social Psychological and Personality Science, Michael Pasek, Jeremy Ginges, and colleagues find that, across religious groups in Fiji and Israel, religious believers see God as encouraging people to treat others in a more universal, or equal, manner.

Potential therapy for rare neurologic disease

 

A targeted therapy, currently being studied for treatment of certain cancers including glioblastoma, may also be beneficial in treating other neurologic diseases, a study at the University of Cincinnati shows.

Older entrepreneurs as successful as their younger counterparts, study reveals

 

From Steve Jobs to Mark Zuckerberg, the stories of prosperous, young innovators drive the American economic narrative. However, the truth is that older business entrepreneurs may be just as well suited to success. And older women are far more successful at launching a business than their younger counterparts.

APS tip sheet: First results from the Belle II experiment

 

The Belle II experiment reports its first measurements.

Scientist proposes clinical trials with low-dose rapamycin to protect elderly from COVID-19

 

The Biogerontology Research Foundation, a registered UK charity supporting and promoting aging and longevity research worldwide since 2008, today announced the publication of a paper titled ‘Geroprotective and senoremediative strategies to reduce the comorbidity, infection rates, severity, and lethality in gerophilic and gerolavic infections’ in the leading journal Aging.

Curbing the rising toll of adults with complex care needs

 

In an article just published in JAMA Health Forum, nurse researchers from the University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing (Penn Nursing) underscore that while responses to the problem have resulted in well-motivated innovations, an effective and actionable path for immediate and long-term remediation should encompass micro- and macro-level solutions.

Lancaster academic sees positives in first published clinical trial of COVID-19 treatment

 

A Lancaster University statistician who worked on the first published large randomized clinical trial for a potential treatment for the COVID-19 virus said the study produced positive results.

INSEAD research finds how much CEOs matter to firm performance

 

Morten Bennedsen, INSEAD Professor of Economics and the André and Rosalie Hoffmann Chaired Professor of Family Enterprise, along with colleagues Francisco Perez-Gonzalez (ITAM and NBER) and Daniel Wolfenzon (Columbia University and NBER) decided to find out how much CEOs matter by measuring the impact on firm performance when a CEO is absent, specifically, hospitalised.

Efforts to control livestock disease PPRV should focus on herd management style, not age

 

The style by which livestock are managed, but not an animal’s age, plays an important role in transmission risk of PPRV, which produces a highly infectious and often fatal disease in sheep and goats. These findings have important implications for control of this widespread virus.

X-rays reveal in situ crystal growth of lead-free perovskite solar panel materials

 

Lead-based perovskites efficiently turn light into electricity but they also present some major drawbacks: the most efficient materials are not very stable, while lead is a toxic element. University of Groningen scientists are studying alternatives to lead-based perovskites. It is very important to investigate in situ how lead-free perovskite crystals form and how the crystal structure affects the

Brown fat can burn energy in an unexpected way

 

Researchers in the lab of Joslin’s Yu-Hua Tseng, PhD, a Senior Investigator in the Section on Integrative Physiology and Metabolism at Joslin Diabetes Center, have discovered an unexpected biological pathway by which brown fat cells can translate energy into heat.

Invasive species with charisma have it easier

 

It’s the outside that counts: Their charisma has an impact on the introduction and image of alien species and can even hinder their control. An international research team, led by the Biology Centre of the Czech Academy of Sciences and the Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (IGB), have investigated the influence of charisma on the management of invasive species.

Shorter radiotherapy treatment for bowel cancer patients during COVID-19

 

An international panel of cancer experts has recommended a one-week course of radiotherapy and delaying surgery as the best way to treat patients with bowel cancer during the COVID-19 pandemic. The short course of treatment involves higher-intensity radiation rather than five weeks of radiotherapy coupled with chemotherapy. Surgery, which normally happens one to two weeks after radiotherapy, can b

New algorithm aims to protect surgical team members against infection with COVID-19 virus

 

Researchers have created an algorithm that aims to protect operating room team members who perform urgent and emergency operations from COVID-19.

Coffee grounds show promise as wood substitute in producing cellulose nanofibers

 

Researchers at Yokohama National University (YNU) meticulously examined cellulose nanofibers extracted from spent coffee grounds, identifying them as a viable new raw source. The YNU team, led by Izuru Kawamura, an associate professor at the Graduate School of Engineering Science, set out to build upon previous research into extracting cellulose nanofibers from coffee grounds. They published their

The ocean responds to a warming planet

 

The oceans help buffer the Earth from climate change by absorbing carbon dioxide and heat at the surface and transporting it to the deep ocean. Using data from two open-ocean research programs at the Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences, new research published in Nature Climate Change indicates the North Atlantic Subtropical Mode Water, an upper ocean water mass, is shrinking in a changing climate

Researchers hope to improve future epidemic predictions

 

As the world grapples with the COVID-19 pandemic, a new mathematical model could offer insights on how to improve future epidemic predictions based on how information mutates as it is transmitted from person to person and group to group. The Army Research Office funded this model, developed by researchers at Carnegie Mellon University and Princeton University.

Tiny marine organisms as the key to global cycles

 

Marine microorganisms play a very important role in global cycles such as of the uptake of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. However, little is known about how they function. New approaches by an international research team with the participation of the GEOMAR, Kiel, Germany are for the first time laying the foundation for a more detailed genetic investigation of some key phytoplankton organisms

Climate change to affect fish sizes and complex food webs

 

Global climate change will affect fish sizes in unpredictable ways and, consequently, impact complex food webs in our oceans, a new IMAS-led study has shown.Led by IMAS and Centre for Marine Socioecology scientist Dr Asta Audzijonyte and published in the journal Nature Ecology and Evolution, the study analysed three decades of data from 30 000 surveys of rocky and coral reefs around Australia.

Neuroscientists find memory cells that help us interpret new situations

 

MIT neuroscientists have identified populations of cells that encode distinctive segments of an overall experience. These chunks of memory are encoded separately from the neural code that stores detailed memories of a specific experience.

Breakthrough in unlocking genetic potential of ocean microbes

 

Researchers have made a major breakthrough in developing gene-editing tools to improve our understanding of one of the most important ocean microbes on the planet.The international project, co-led by scientists at the University of East Anglia in the UK, unlocks the potential of the largest untapped genetic resource for the development of natural products such as novel antibacterial, antiviral, an

Immunotherapy prior to surgery is effective in colon cancer

 

Patients with colon cancer, but no distant metastases, can benefit from a short course of immunotherapy while waiting for their surgery, as it can cause tumours to shrink substantially or clear up in a very short time. This is the finding of the phase II NICHE study led by Myriam Chalabi from the Netherlands Cancer Institute. In patients with the MSI subtype (MSI) the response rate was 100%. In th

Nanopore reveals shape-shifting enzyme linked to catalysis

 

University of Groningen scientists observed the characteristics of a single enzyme inside a nanopore. This revealed that the enzyme can exist in four different folded states, or conformers, that play an active role in the reaction mechanism. These results will have consequences for enzyme engineering and the development of inhibitors. The study was published in Nature Chemistry on April 6.

RIKEN group leads world in single-cell transcriptome profiling

 

With the goal of ensuring that single-cell RNA sequencing, a current focus of intense research, makes use of the best possible methods, an international group has benchmarked 13 different methods. The group, led by Holger Heyn of the Centro Nacional de Análisis Genómico (CNAG-CRG) in Spain, found that the Quartz-seq2 method, developed by a team in the RIKEN Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research,

‘Smart toilet’ monitors for signs of disease, Stanford study reports

 

There’s a new disease-detecting technology in the lab of Sanjiv ‘Sam’ Gambhir, M.D., Ph.D., and its No. 1 source of data is number one. And number two.

Bedroom air filters help asthmatic children breathe easier

 

Using a bedroom air filter that traps particles of pollution with diameters smaller than 2.5 micrometers can significantly improve breathing in asthmatic children, a new Duke University-led study by American and Chinese scientists shows. It’s the first study to document that physiological improvements occur in the children’s airways when the air filters are in use, and it suggests that with consis

Changes in marijuana vaping, edible use among US 12th-graders

 

About 2,400 students in the 12th grade were surveyed about the frequency and mode of use (smoking, vaping and edibles) of marijuana from 2015 to 2018.

Examining association between childhood video game use, adolescent body weight

 

Researchers looked at whether there was a long-term association between using video games at an early age and later weight as a teenager, as well as what role behaviors such as physical activity, the regularity of bedtimes and consuming sugar-sweetened beverages might play.

Which healthy lifestyle factors associated with more years free of chronic disease?

 

What combination of healthy lifestyle factors were associated with the most years lived without chronic diseases was the focus of this analysis that included data from more than 100,000 adults who were participants in 12 European studies.

Follow your gut

 

We may try to consciously make good food choices, but our bodies have their own way of weighing in. A new study reveals a learning mechanism orchestrated by the digestive and nervous systems that leads animals to actively seek out certain foods. These results are a step towards understanding how eating-related disorders, such as obesity, occur.

Alzheimer’s trial screening data links high amyloid levels with early stage disease

 

The first paper from the NIH-funded A4 study supports the hypothesis that higher levels of amyloid protein in the brain represent an early stage of Alzheimer’s disease. Screening data for the study show that amyloid burden in clinically normal older adults is associated with a family history of disease, lower cognitive test scores, and reports of declines in daily cognitive function.

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA): Newborn screening promises a benefit

 

The earliest possible diagnosis and treatment of infantile SMA through newborn screening leads to better motor development and less need for permanent ventilation as well as fewer deaths.

The human body as an electrical conductor, a new method of wireless power transfer

 

The project Electronic AXONs: wireless microstimulators based on electronic rectification of epidermically applied currents (eAXON, 2017-2022), funded by a European Research Council (ERC) Consolidator Grant awarded to Antoni Ivorra, head of the Biomedical Electronics Research Group (BERG) of the Department of Information and Communication Technologies (DTIC) at UPF principally aims to ‘develop ver

How the chemical industry can meet the climate goals

 

ETH researchers analysed various possibilities for reducing the net CO2 emissions of the chemical industry to zero. Their conclusion? The chemical industry can in fact have a carbon-neutral future.

What is the Asian hornet invasion going to cost Europe?

 

Since its accidental introduction in 2003 in France, the yellow-legged Asian hornet Vespa velutina nigrithorax is rapidly spreading through Europe. In a new paper, published in the open-access journal Neobiota, French scientists try to estimate the costs of the invasion regarding the potential damage to apiculture and pollination services.

An updated overview of the complex clinical spectrum of tourette syndrome

 

Background: Tourette syndrome is a common nerve development disorder which is characterized by a variety of muscle or vocal movements called ‘tics’, often involuntary. The disorder is reflectively and quite erroneously associated by many as a just syndrome with tics and the frequent use of undesirable language (swearing). However, Tourette syndrome is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder with sever

Insect wings hold antimicrobial clues for improved medical implants

 

Some insect wings such as cicada and dragonfly possess nanopillar structures that kill bacteria upon contact. However, to date, the precise mechanisms that cause bacterial death have been unknown. Using a range of advanced imaging tools, functional assays and proteomic analyses, a study by the University of Bristol has identified new ways in which nanopillars can damage bacteria.

How old are whale sharks? Nuclear bomb legacy reveals their age

 

Nuclear bomb tests during the Cold War in the 1950s and 1960s have helped scientists accurately estimate the age of whale sharks, the biggest fish in the seas, according to a Rutgers-led study. It’s the first time the age of this majestic species has been verified. One whale shark was an estimated 50 years old when it died, making it the oldest known of its kind. Another shark was an estimated 35

Hereditary mutation that drives aggressive head and neck, and lung cancers in Asians

 

New research from the Cancer Science Institute of Singapore at the National University of Singapore revealed a genetic variant in a gene called MET that is responsible for more aggressive growth of head and neck, and lung cancers in Asian populations.

Oil spill: where and when will it reach the beach? Answers to prevent environmental impacts

 

When an accident involving oil spills occurs, forecasting the behaviour of the oil slick and understanding in advance where and when it will reach the coastline is crucial to organize an efficient emergency response that is able to limit environmental and economic repercussions. A study led by CMCC Foundation’s researchers, based on the concrete case study of the 2018 oil spill accident off Corsic

Alport syndrome severity can be predicted by causative protein genotype

 

Researchers from Kumamoto and Kobe Universities in Japan have successfully developed a system for predicting the severity of Alport syndrome, a serious hereditary kidney disease. By analyzing the genotype of the causative protein, type IV collagen, with a proprietary evaluation system, the researchers successfully predicted the severity of future nephropathy.

Cell muscle movements visualized for first time

 

The movements of cell muscles in the form of tiny filaments of proteins have been visualized at unprecedented detail by University of Warwick scientists.

Magnetoacoustic waves: Towards a new paradigm of on-chip communication

 

Researchers have observed directly and for the first time magnetoacoustic waves (sound-driven spin waves), which are considered as potential information carriers for novel computation schemes. These waves have been generated and observed on hybrid magnetic/piezoelectric devices. The experiments were designed by a collaboration between the University of Barcelona (UB), the Institute of Materials Sc

Link between air pollution and corona mortality in Italy could be possible

 

A group of scientists from Aarhus University in Denmark and University of Siena in Italy has found another small piece in the puzzle of understanding COVID-19. Looking for reasons why the mortality rate is up to 12% in the northern part of Italy and only approx. 4.5% in the rest of the country, they found a probable correlation between air pollution and mortality in two of the worst affected regio

Identification of new factors important in maintaining lung function in the elderly

 

Japanese researchers have found that elderly carriers of a specific DsbA-L gene type are at increased risk for lung function decline. The protein DsbA-L is known to be an antioxidant and enhances the function of the beneficial protein adiponectin. Decreased expression of the DsbA-L gene in lung tissue resulted in an increase in oxidative stress and mucous production. The researchers expect that pr

MSU scientists discover legacy of past weather in stories of prairie plant restoration

 

Michigan State University’s Lars Brudvig, associate professor in the Department of Plant Biology, and former MSU graduate student Anna Funk investigated fields of data going back 20 years to find out why some replanted prairies are healthier than others. Their research is published in Scientific Reports.

A new way to deliver drugs in MOFs

 

Scientists from the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences (IPC PAS) in cooperation with the Faculty of Chemistry of the Warsaw University of Technology (WUT) have developed a new, solvent-free method for the encapsulation of drug molecules in MOF (Metal-Organic Framework) porous materials.

Making stronger concrete with ‘sewage-enhanced’ steel slag

 

Researchers examined whether steel slag that had been used to treat wastewater could then be recycled as an aggregate material for concrete. Their findings? Concrete made with post-treatment steel slag was about 17% stronger than concrete made with conventional aggregates, and 8% stronger than raw steel slag.

Researchers discover pressure-induced polyamorphism in dense SO2

 

Recently, a team of Chinese scientists and their collaborators at the Institute of Solid State Physics of the Hefei Institutes of Physical Science examined polyamorphism in the molecular substance SO 2 .

Medicare changes may increase access to TAVR

 

The number of hospitals providing TAVR could double with changes to Medicare requirements. Researchers see reason for both excitement and concern.

Covid-19 tool allows health leaders to plan for critical care surge

 

The challenges of COVID-19 will require hospital leaders, practitioners and regional officials to adopt drastic measures that challenge the standard way of providing care. The RAND Corporation has created a simple-to-use online tool that allows decision-makers at all levels — hospitals, health care systems, states, regions — to estimate current critical care capacity and rapidly explore strategi

Turning colon cancer cells around

 

Using a modified natural substance along with current approaches could improve colon cancer treatment, according to findings by University of California, Irvine biologists. The discovery comes from their research into the role of an amino acid in tumor development and a potential method for reversing the process. Their paper appears in Nature Cancer. The disease is the second-leading cause of canc

The four horsemen of the COVID-19 pandemic

 

It is clear that we must prioritize identifying and alleviating the conditions that made the Covid-19 pandemic possible. Even as it rages, scientists are already asking if it is more than just a virus, but rather a symptom emerging from something much deeper, a nonlinear dynamical system of coupled pathologies underlying a veneer of ‘progress’ in an increasingly fragile, volatile, hyperconnected w

Making biofuels cheaper by putting plants to work

 

One strategy to make biofuels more competitive is to make plants do some of the work themselves. Scientists can engineer plants to produce valuable chemical compounds, or bioproducts, as they grow. Then the bioproducts can be extracted from the plant and the remaining plant material can be converted into fuel. But one important part of this strategy has remained unclear — exactly how much of a pa

Researchers report new understanding of energy fluctuations in fluids

 

The Casimir Force is a well-known effect originating from the quantum fluctuation of electromagnetic fields in a vacuum. Now an international group of researchers have reported a
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Thanks for joining us today.
Until next time,
Russ Roberts