Researchers from Earth and Ocean Sciences and the Ryan Institute at NUI Galway have carried out a study on the contribution of widely flushed personal care textile products (wet wipes and sanitary towels) to the ocean plastic crisis.
There are physical limits to how powerful computers can become if they are to maintain their size. Molecular electronics can solve that problem, and now SDU researchers are contributing to this field with a new, efficient conducting material, based on molecules.
The vast majority of Irish adults — 82% — are willing to download a contact tracing app to their smartphone to curb the COVID-19 pandemic, according to new research carried out by a team from Lero, the Science Foundation Ireland Research Centre for Software, University of Limerick (UL) and National University of Ireland Galway (NUI Galway). However, respondents also expressed several privacy con
Problems in how the brain recognizes and processes novel information lie at the root of psychosis, researchers have found. Their discovery that defective brain signals in patients with psychosis could be altered with medication paves the way for new treatments for the disease.
The UK’s definition of a ‘close contact’–15 or more minutes within 2 metres of distance–used for its coronavirus track and trace system, should curb the spread of COVID-19 infection, indicates research published online in the Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health.
M. Hakan Hekimoglu, an assistant professor in the Lally School of Management at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, and his co-author, Burak Kazaz of Syracuse University, have developed a robust and highly accurate pricing model for Bordeaux wine futures using four factors: temperature, precipitation, market index, and expert reviews.
A new Pew Research Center report examining U.S. views of climate change and other environmental issues, including attitudes toward expanding renewable energy and the federal government’s response to climate change.
A device that monitors health conditions in the body using a person’s sweat has been developed by Penn State and Xiangtan University researchers, according to Huanyu ‘Larry’ Cheng, assistant professor of engineering science and mechanics, Penn State.
During the morning of June 23, the fourth system in the Northern Atlantic Ocean was a subtropical depression. By the afternoon, the subtropical depression took on tropical characteristics and was renamed Dolly. NASA’s Terra satellite greeted Tropical Storm Dolly by taking an image of the new tropical storm.
A team of scientists working at Berkeley Lab’s 88-Inch Cyclotron has discovered a new form of the human-made element mendelevium. The newly created isotope, mendelevium-244, is the 17th and lightest form of the element, which was first discovered in 1955 by a Berkeley Lab team.
A study published online as an accepted paper in the Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine found that increased physical activity is associated with a lower risk of obstructive sleep apnea, a common sleep-related breathing disorder. The study is the largest to date focused on the relationship between sleep apnea and levels of physical activity in the general community.
Access to green spaces in metro areas–parks, trails, even the tree cover in a neighborhood – is largely associated with income and race, new research indicates.Researchers combined census-block-group demographic and socio-economic data with satellite imagery to analyze access to green spaces and vegetation in two metropolitan areas: Columbus, Ohio, and Atlanta, Georgia. Their study appears in the
A team from the University of Washington used an infrared laser to cool a solid semiconductor by at least 20 degrees C, or 36 F, below room temperature, as they report in a paper published June 23 in Nature Communications.
Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Ames Laboratory and their collaborators from Iowa State University have developed a new approach for generating layered, difficult-to-combine, heterostructured solids.
Research forthcoming in Strategic Management Journal explores potential biases that limit the effectiveness of ML process technologies and the scope for human capital to be complementary in reducing such biases.
Some common strains of influenza have the potential to mutate to evade broad-acting antibodies that could be elicited by a universal flu vaccine, according to a study led by scientists at Scripps Research. The findings highlight the challenges involved in designing such a vaccine, and should be useful in guiding its development.
An article published in the Journal of Biomedical Optics (JBO), “Point-of-care, multispectral, smartphone-based dermascopes for dermal lesion screening and erythema monitoring,” shows that standard smartphone technology can be adapted to image skin lesions, providing a low-cost, accessible medical diagnostic tool for skin cancer.
Affection is partly genetic for women but not for men, finds a new study led by the University of Arizona. Those predisposed to being more affectionate may be struggling with ‘skin hunger’ amid COVID-19 physical distancing.
A highly unusual gravitational wave signal, detected by the LIGO and Virgo observatories in the US and Italy, was generated by a new class of binary systems (two astronomical objects orbiting around each other), an international team of astrophysicists has confirmed.
From low-income countries to high-income countries, long-term exposure to fine particulate outdoor air pollution is a major contributor to cardiovascular disease and death, a new Oregon State University study found. But even small reductions in air pollution levels can result in a reduction of disease risk.
Research led by Queen Mary University of London has revealed novel insights into the molecular circuitry controlling cancer cell growth and spread. The findings highlight new pathways involved in these key processes of cancer progression that may represent targets for therapies.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), an infertility disorder affecting at least 15% of reproductive-age women, may have at least two different subtypes, suggests a study funded by the National Institutes of Health. The findings could provide important information on the possible causes of PCOS and for developing more effective ways to treat the condition.
More than 300 scientists and clinicians from the federal government, industry and academia published a report of their conclusions and recommendations on COVID-19 serology studies online in Immunity. The group gathered for an online workshop in May to discuss the role of serology testing in understanding and responding to the COVID-19 public health crisis and to explore strategies to address key s
Healthcare epidemiologists report using unprecedented methods in response to the unique circumstances resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic, according to the results of a new study published today in Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, the journal of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA). Healthcare epidemiologists have been at the center of hospitals’ responses to the ch
A University of Texas at Dallas study of 100 mobile apps for kids found that 72 violated a federal law aimed at protecting children’s online privacy. Dr. Kanad Basu, assistant professor of electrical and computer engineering in the Erik Jonsson School of Engineering and Computer Science and lead author of the study, along with colleagues elsewhere, developed a tool that can determine whether an An
Using protein and RNA, scientists have created hollow, spherical sacks known as vesicles. These bubble-like entities — which form spontaneously when specific protein and RNA molecules are mixed in an aqueous buffer solution — hold potential as biological storage compartments. They could serve as an alternative to traditional vesicles that are made from water-insoluble organic compounds called li
NIH investigators and colleagues have discovered that when the immune system first responds to infectious agents such as viruses or bacteria, a natural brake on the response prevents overactivation. Their new study in mBio describes this brake and the way pathogens such as SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, turn it on. Their finding provides a potential target for an immunotherapy that mi
A University of Cambridge team led by Professor Mihaela van der Schaar and intensive care consultant Dr Ari Ercole of the Cambridge Centre for AI in Medicine (CCAIM) is calling for urgent research into the striking differences in COVID-19 deaths they have discovered between the intensive care units of NHS trusts across England.
After examining the genes of more than 200,000 people all over the world who have type-2 diabetes, researchers from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania and the Veterans Health Administration’s Corporal Michael J. Crescenz Veterans Affairs Medical Center found hundreds of genetic variants never before linked to the disease.
NASA’s Aqua satellite used infrared light to analyze the strength of storms in the North Atlantic Ocean’s newly formed Subtropical Depression 4. Infrared data provides temperature information to find the strongest thunderstorms that reach high into the atmosphere which have the coldest cloud top temperatures.
Syracuse University chemistry professor Dr. Robert P. Doyle has developed a new drug lead to treat type 2 diabetes in millions of patients who are seeking to better control their blood sugar without the common side effects of nausea, vomiting, and in select cases, undesired weight loss.
The compulsive hoarding of animals is a poorly understood psychiatric disorder in people. Characterised by failure to provide minimum standards of care, it can result in malnourishment, uncontrolled breeding, overcrowding and neglect.
Researchers in the Arizona State University Department of Psychology followed 547 children for a week and measured their media use and sleep patterns. For children who generally struggle to self-regulate their behavior, screen time in the hour before bed was associated with less sleep. Media use in children who scored high on measures of effortful control was not related to less sleep.
Motorists can save as much as $14,500 on fuel costs over 15 years by driving an electric vehicle instead of a similar one fueled by gasoline, according to a new analysis conducted by researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Idaho National Laboratory (INL).
To better understand redwood habitat suitability, a team of researchers from the University of Texas, Arizona State University, University of Miami, and Stanford University combined high-resolution redwood distribution maps with data on moisture availability to identify the environmental factors that shape redwood distribution
A new study from the University of Delaware finds that tropical forest loss is increased by large-scale land acquisitions and that certain kind investment projects — including tree plantations and plantations for producing palm oil and wood fiber — are “consistently associated with increased forest loss.”
About three-quarters of US workers, or 108 million people, are in jobs that cannot be done from home during a pandemic, putting these workers at increased risk of exposure to disease. This majority of workers are also at higher risk for other job disruptions such as layoffs, furloughs or hours reductions, a University of Washington study shows.
Lan and colleagues, reporting in the peer-reviewed open access journal Advanced Photonics, have developed a wireless ultrasound transducer that is efficiently excited by microwaves. The result is a simple oil-filled patch that can be placed anywhere on the body.
Scientists from the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and the European Virgo observatory, including Northwestern University astronomers, have detected a mystery object inside the puzzling area known as the “mass gap” — the range that lies between the heaviest known neutron star and the lightest known black hole. The intriguing object of 2.6 solar masses was found on Aug.
New Penn State research found that the 2017 Women’s March, which championed goals in support of women and human rights, was met with mostly positive support on social media, with relatively few negative messages.
What happens when a molecule collides with a surface? Researchers at Swansea University have shown that the orientation of the molecule as it moves – whether it is spinning like a helicopter blade or rolling like a cartwheel – is important in determining what happens in the collision.The interaction of molecules with surfaces is important for many fields: plant fertilizers and chemicals, industria
Natural gas that contains larger amounts of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) is termed sour gas. Before it can enter a pipeline, it must be “sweetened” by removal of its acidic impurities. Through fine tuning of the ratios of two molecular components, it is possible to produce tailored polyimide membranes that can purify sour gas with a wide range of compositions, as reported by
Graham Peaslee’s team tested more than 30 samples of used and unused PPE from six specialty textile manufacturers in the United States and found them to be treated extensively with PFAS or constructed with fluoropolymers, a type of PFAS used to make textiles oil and water resistant.
Researchers from Russia and the Czech Republic performed numerical modelling of natural rock arcades using a mathematical model that describes a succession of arches forming as a result of weathering and then turning into rock pillars without human involvement, despite their striking resemblance to architectural arcades.
Volume 11 Issue 25 of Oncotarget reported that Indoximod has shaped the understanding of the biology of IDO1 in the control of immune responses, though its mechanism of action has been poorly understood.
Volume 11 Issue 25 of @Oncotarget reported that the authors aimed to characterize the bacteriome, mycobiome, and mycobiome-bacteriome interactions of oral wash in Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, or HNSCC, patients and to determine if they are distinct from those of the oral wash of matched non-Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients.
Volume 11, Issue 25 of Oncotarget reported that Administration of landiolol hydrochloride was found to be associated with reduced incidence of atrial fibrillation after esophagectomy for esophageal cancer in our previous randomized controlled trial.
A navigation algorithm developed at the University of Zurich enables drones to learn challenging acrobatic maneuvers. Autonomous quadcopters can be trained using simulations to increase their speed, agility and efficiency, which benefits conventional search and rescue operations.
Researchers from Kanazawa University developed a novel tool to study how the innate immune system fights bacterial toxins. They purified the pore-forming toxin Monalysin from a bacterial culture, and structurally and functionally characterized the purified toxin to show how it functions at the molecular level. This study could help understand the mechanisms underlying the interactions between host
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy is a new and in some cases highly effective form of immunotherapy to treat certain types of cancer. This promising treatment comes at a cost, however: The manufacturers charge up to EUR 320,000 for the treatment of a single patient. By determining the fixed and variable costs involved, researchers from the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) establis
The 2020 Medication Access Report uncovers the impact of common medication access challenges, including those caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, and assesses how the market is responding to these challenges with tools that inform medication decisions, streamline administrative tasks and support remote healthcare.
Mother’s chronic prenatal psychological distress and elevated hair cortisol concentrations are associated with gut microbiota composition of the infant, according to a new publication from the FinnBrain research project of the University of Turku, Finland. The results help to better understand how prenatal stress can be connected to infant growth and development. The study has been published in th
A research group led by Professor Kenneth K.Y. Wong of the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering at the University of Hong Kong, in collaboration with Bielefeld University in Germany, has developed a compact fibre laser microscope that brought breakthroughs to analysing molecules in cells and clinical applications. The innovation was presented in the journal ‘Light: Science and Appli
By preventing sugar uptake, researchers succeeded in increasing the cancer cells’ sensitivity to chemotherapeutic treatment. The studies, led by researchers at Lund University in Sweden, were carried out on cancer cells in a lab environment. The results were recently published in the research journal Haematologica.
Scientists developed a software tool that makes it possible to quickly and efficiently find similar parts in the genomes of different animals, which is essential for understanding how closely related two species are, and how far they have evolved from their common ancestor. The research was published in Giga Science.
Researchers at the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI) have reached a new milestone in few-cycle pulse generation, breaking a 10-year-old record and achieving 1.5-optical-cycle-long laser pulses with 1.2 terawatt peak power by a new high-energy hollow fiber compressor beamline. The intense pulses will be used to generate intense attosecond harmonic radiation
Sword fights are often the weak link in virtual reality (VR) fighting games, with digital avatars engaging in battle using imprecise, pre-recorded movements that barely reflect the player’s actions or intentions. Now a team at the University of Bath, in collaboration with the game development studio Ninja Theory, has found a solution to the challenges of creating realistic VR sword fights: Touche
When a material is subjected to a shock or blast wave, damage often forms internally through spall fracture, and research is needed to know how these damaged materials respond to subsequent shock waves. Recent experimentation on spall fracture in metals found that, in certain cases, there was an almost complete lack of damage with only a thin band of altered microstructure observed. Researchers ha
Using a newly developed method, researchers from the University of Würzburg, in cooperation with the University Hospital of Würzburg, were able to identify thousands of special peptides on the surface of cells for the first time. They were able to show that these so-called cryptic peptides mark a significant proportion of tumor cells. These findings could provide a new starting point for cancer im
Scientists at Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute have created a next-generation drug called Ciapavir (SBI-0953294) that is effective at reactivating dormant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The research, published in Cell Reports Medicine, aims to create a functional HIV cure by activating and then eliminating all pockets of dormant HIV–an approach called “shock and kill.”
A study in Cell Reports shows the delicate physiological balancing act a mother’s immune system must pull off to prevent a fetus from being rejected by the body works differently in first and
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